Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to pass a large amount of urine. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidney tubules, which allow water to be removed from the body or reabsorbed, do not respond to a chemical in the body called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin. ADH normally tells the kidneys to make the urine more concentrated. As a result of the defect, the kidneys release an excessive amount of water into the urine, producing a large quantity of very dilute urine.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be either acquired or hereditary. The acquired form is brought on by certain drugs and chronic diseases and can occur at any time during life. The hereditary form is caused by genetic mutations, and its signs and symptoms usually become apparent within the first few months of life. Source: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD), supported by ORDR-NCATS and NHGRI.